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Kajol Biography


Born on 5th August 1974, Kajol Devgan is from a film oriented family of Bengali-Marathi descent. Her mother Tanuja is an actress and her father Shomu Mukherjee was a film director and producer. Her younger sister Tanisha Mukherjee is also an actress. Mischievous and obstinate from an early age, this star was not affected by her parents’ split.

Kajol Biography She studied at the St Joseph Convent boarding school in Panchgani which offered her ample extracurricular activities. Her passion for reading fiction helped her through the bad moments of her life. She began working for Rahul Rawail’s film ‘Bekhudi’ at the age of sixteen and dropped out of school to pursue acting as a career.

Her performance in her film which was a commercial failure gave her ‘Baazigar’ (1993) which was declared a success. She won her first Filmfare Best Actress nomination for the movie ‘Yeh Dillagi’.

Her pairing with Shahrukh Khan was full of luck because their next two movies together ‘Karan Arjun’ and ‘Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge’ were commercial hits. Her ‘DDLJ’ is still counted in the best Hindi movies of all time and earned her a Filmfare award for Best Actress.

In 1995, she acted opposite Ajay Devgan in two unsuccessful films ‘Hulchul’ and ‘Gundaraj’. Playing a mean and negative role in her 1997 hit ‘Gupt: The Hidden Truth’ was difficult was her but was a turning point in her career. She won the Filmfare award for Best Negative role.

Her romantic comedy ‘Ishq’ was again a commercial success. In 1998 she appeared in her first hit of the year ‘Pyaar Kiya to Darna Kya’ and then in ‘Dushman’ which received critical appreciations and her first Screen Award for Best Actress.

Her biggest success that year was Karan Johar’s ‘Kuch Kuch Hota Hai’ with Shahrukh Khan and Rani Mukherjee which was a blockbuster in India and overseas and fetched her Filmfare Best Actress Award. In 1999 her ‘Dil Kya kare’ was a failure but her next ‘Hum Aapke Dil Mein Rehte Hain’ was one of the few women centered films which were a success.

In 2000 after the failure of ‘Raju Chacha’ and ‘Kuch Khatti Kuch Meethi’, she appeared in ‘Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham’ which was a blockbuster in India. After this she became more selective about her movies to concentrate on her married life with Ajay Devgan whom she married in 1999 after much criticism about their pair.

She appeared in ‘Fanaa’ in 2006 which was again a super hit and won her a fourth Filmfare Best Actress award. In 2008 she was honored with the ‘Karamveer Puraskar’ for her social services. Her next was Devgan’s directorial debut ‘U Me aur Hum’ which did moderately at the box office but won Kajol critical praises for her role as an Alzheimer diseased woman.

Concerned about the literacy rate, she launched ‘Shiksha’ to support children’s education. In 2010, she did ‘My Name is Khan’ with Shahrukh khan’ which was an international success. She next did ‘We Are Family’ which did moderately. Her last venture of the year was ‘Toonpur Ka Superhero’ which was a critical and commercial failure. In 2003, she gave birth to a daughter Nysa and in 2010 to a son, Yug. She was appointed the brand ambassador of Pratham, a charity organization in 2012.

John Cena Biography


Born on 23rd April 1977 to parents Carol and John Cena, Sr in West Newbury, Massachusetts, John Cena was sent to Cushing Academy and then he attended Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts. During his college years, he was a Division III All-American centre on the college football team wearing number 54 which is still used on his WWE merchandise.

John Cena Biography He graduated in 1998 with a degree in physical physiology and pursued a career in body building while also working as a chauffeur for a limousine company. He started his training in the year 2000 at the “Ultimate University” where he used a semi-robotic character once he was placed into an in-ring role.

During his training there, some of his career was documented in the Discovery Channel program ‘Inside Pro Wresting School’. In2001, he signed a contract with the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). He held the OVW Heavyweight Championship for three months and OVW Southern Tag Team Championship for two months.

This daring person made his debut on television as an answer to the open challenge of Kurt Angle in 2002. In the first half of 2003, Cena sought the WWE championship by challenging the reigning champion Brock lesner. In 2004, he participated in the Royal Rumble match making it to the final six before being defeated by Big Show.

He again took part in the Royal Rumble match in 2005 and made it to the final two this time. Cena and his contender wrestler Batista went over the top rope but the match was restarted and Cena lost to Batista. During a match with Mr. Kennedy on October 1 2007, he suffered a legitimate torn pectoral muscle while executing a hip toss. He was operated by orthopedic surgeon James Andrews at St. Vincent’s Hospital.

In 2008, he surprised everybody with his return as the final participant of the Royal Rumble Match and won the match by throwing out Triple H. Attacked by the Nexus on several occasions and being defeated by it, he decided to join the group. But his differences with the Nexus were never buried and were forced open again when Cena refused to make a peace treaty with them after they were under a new management.

Apart from wrestling, Cena has also been a part of the movie ‘The marine’ produced by WWE Studios. The film fared moderately at the box office. His second film ‘Rounds’, again by WWE Studios was released in 2009. He also co-starred in his third movie by WWE Productions ‘Legendary’. A favorite among children, he acted in the film ‘Fred: The movie’ which was released in 2010 on Nickelodeon Channel.

He has also been seen in several reality shows on the small screen. Starting with ‘manhunt’ in 2001 and then ‘Fast Cars and Superstars: The Gillette young Guns Celebrity Race’. He was interviewed for the CNN Special Investigations Unit documentary ‘Death Grip: Inside Pro-Wrestling’ and he also hosted the Nickelodeon Kids Choice Awards in 2008. A part of the ‘Make-A-Wish Foundation’, Cena has granted over 300 wishes for Arizona children with life-threatening illnesses. He has also endorsed for various big brands.

Anushka Sharma Biography


Born on 1st May 1988 to parents Col. Ajay Kumar Sharma, an army officer and his wife Ashima Sharma, Anushka is their second child after her elder brother Karnesh who is currently in the Merchant Navy. She did her schooling from Army School and graduated with specialization in arts from Mount Carmel College, Bangalore.

Anushka Sharma Biography Desiring to be a model, she got herself enrolled in Elite Modelling agency where she was groomed by renowned style consultant Prasad Bidapa’. Later she moved to Mumbai to try her luck and pursue a career in modeling.

She began her career as a model with Lakme Fashion Week for Wendell Rodricks’s Les Vamps show and was lucky to be picked as Rodrick’s finale model at the Spring Summer 07 collection. She had lots of advertisement offers since then and she campaigned for Silk and Shine, Whisper, Nathella Jewellery and Fiat Palio. Admired by Aditya Chopra in one of these advertisements, she was casted in his movie ‘Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi’ opposite Shahrukh Khan in 2008.

The success of the film and the acclamation of her role was a turning point in her life. Initially aspiring only to be a top model and not indulge in the film industry, this actress is made for Bollywood. She seconf movie ‘Badmaash Company’ showed her in a stunning role and her chemistry with Shahid Kapoor was enchanting.

In 2010, she appeared in Yash Raj Film’s ‘Band Baaja Baarat’ opposite debutant Ranveer Singh and their pair was acknowledged as one of the best in the industry. The movie released with positive reviews and it was reported that it grossed rupees 21.44 crore in the first five weeks.

Her role as a Punjabi girl who manages marriage parties along with partner Ranveer was asserted as her best role till date. Critics felt that the movie rested on her shoulders and she did justice to it. She even received a nomination for the Filmfare Best Actress Award. Speculations of her romance with Ranveer followed her but she never confirmed her relationship with the actor.

Her next release was Nikhil Advani’s ‘Patiala House’ which released in 2011. Despite the film being lukewarm at the box office, Sharma received positive responses from critics.

Her next venture ‘Ladies Vs Ricky Bahl’, again with ‘Band Baaja Baarat’ costar Ranveer was moderate at the box office but received negative media perception. Currentl she is shooting for Vishal Bhardwaj’s ‘Matru Ki Bijlee Ka Mandola’ , Yash Chopra’s untitled film with Shahrukh Khan and Katrina Kaif. She is a very promising actress who has won several awards including IIfa for her performance in Band Baaja Baraat.

William Wordsworth Biography


The great English poet ‘William Wordsworth’ was born on 7th April 1770 to parents John Wordsworth and Ann Cookson in Wordsworth house in Northwest England, Lake District. His father was a legal representative of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale and lived in a mansion in a small town through connections.

William Wordsworth Biography He was closest to his sister Dorothy Wordsworth who was also born in the same year and they were baptized together. Although rarely present, his father introduced him to the world of poetry, teaching him the writing of Shakespeare, Milton and Spenser.

In 1778 he was sent to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire after his mother’s death. He met his future wife Mary in this school. He published a sonnet in the European magazine in 1787 and in the same year he went to St. John’s College, Cambridge and received a B.A degree in 1791.

In November 1791, he visited Revolutionary France and fell in love with Annette Vallon, a French woman. Lack of money and the tension brewing up between Britain and France forced him to come back to England alone.

The war thus prevented his meeting with Annette and their daughter. He wrote the sonnet ‘It is a beauteous evening, calm and free’ recalling his walk with the nine year old Caroline and his affection for her is visible in this sonnet. In 1793 his first poetry with the collections ‘An Evening Walk’ and ‘Descriptive Sketches’ was published.

He met Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the two poets together wrote Lyrical Ballads (1798). One of his most famous poems ‘Tintern Abbey’ was published along with Coleridge’s ‘Rime of the Ancient Mariner’. From 1795 to 1797, he wrote his only play ‘The Borderers’. Wordsworth, along with Sister Dorothy and friend Coleridge travelled to Germany in 1798.

His homesickness haunted him but not even the harsh winter of 1798-99 could stop him from writing. He began working of an autobiographical piece titled ‘The Prelude’. He also started an autobiographical poem which he called ‘Poem to Coleridge’. He next wrote ‘The Lucy Poems’ and moved back to England with Dorothy.

The three poets Robert Southey, William Wordsworth and Coleridge came to be known as the ‘Lake poets’. In 1802 he received the money that the Earl of Lonsdale owned his father and thus enabled him to marry. He arranged matters with Annette and married Mary Hutchinson, his childhood friend. In 1087, he published ‘Poems in Two Volumes’.

In 1813, he received an appointment as Distributor of stamps for Westmorland with a sufficient income and he settled with his family in Rydal Mount, Ambleside. Inspite of the uncompleted first and third part of the ‘Recluse’, he published ‘The Excursion’, the second part.

In 1838, he was honored with Doctor of Civil Law Degree in 1838 from Durham University and Oxford University in the next year. With the death of his daughter in 1847, his poetry stopped. He accepted the honour of becoming the Poet Laureate after the death of Robert Southey in 1843. He died on 23rd April 1850 through pleurisy. His lengthy autobiographical ‘poem to Coleridge’ was published as ‘The Prelude’ after his death by his widow Mary.

Vidya Balan Biography


The ‘Dirty Picture’ star was born on 1st January 1978 in Kerala to parents P.R Balan and his wife Saraswathy Balan in a Tamil speaking family. Inspite of Tamil and Malayalam, the languages most preferred in her house, she is also well versed in Hindi, Marathi, English and Bengali. She went to St. Anthony Girls’ High School and did her Sociology majors from St. Xavier’s College.

Vidya Balan Biography Later she went to study MA where her first film offer awaited her. She debuted as an actress in the Bengali film ‘Bhalo Theko’ (2003) for which she earned the Anandalok Puraskar Best Actress Award in Kolkata.

Before Bhalo Theko, she signed up the Malayalam movie ‘Chakram’ which was shelved and when later it was restarted, Meera Jasmine took Balan’s place. Her Bollywood debut was not easy with six months of audition before finally bagging the lead role in Pradeep Sarkar’s ‘Parineeta’ which got her critically acclaimed.

She eventually won the Best Debut award and a nomination for Best Actress in Filmfare. After rejecting a offer from the producer of ‘Manasellam’ which later went to Asin Thottumkal, she appeared in Rajkumar Hirani’s ‘Lage Raho Munnabhai’ in 2006. This venture of Vidya became the second highest grossing film of the year and brought accolades from critics.

Then in 2007, she did a supporting role in Mani Ratnam’s ‘Guru’ which did well at the box office. Her next release was Nikhil Advani’s ‘Salaam-e-Ishq: A Tribute to Love’ failed commercially and critically but won Vidya some critical accolades. After such positive response for her performances, she went on to do ‘Eklavya: The Royal Guard’ which was selected as India’s Official Entry to the Oscars’ for the 80th Academy awards.

Her next box office success was Sajid Khan’s ‘Heyy Babyy’ with a worldwide gross of rupees 83.65 crore. Her next release was Priyadarshan’s psychological thriller ‘Bhool Bhulaiyaa’. She played the role of a woman suffering from dissociative identity disorder which received appreciations from the critics.

She next appeared in Aziz Mirza’s ‘Kismat konnection’ which did not do well at the box office and neither was her character as Priya praised. In 2009, along with Amitabh and Abhishek Bachchan this magical actress was seen in the movie ‘Paa’. She won a ‘Filmfare Best Actress Award’ and the ‘Stardust Best actress Award’ for her role as Amitabh Bachchan’s mother.

In 2010, she played the character of an abandoned wife in ‘Ishqiya’. She won the ‘Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress’ that year. In 2011, she appeared in Raj Kumar Gupta’s ‘No One Killed Jessica’.

In 2011 her much speculated movie ‘the Dirty Picture’ was released. The actress played the role of ‘Silk Smitha’ and received mixed reviews. Some felt that Vidya’s voluptuous body and appeal was very dry in fron of Smitha’s grace and charm while some just loved her performance. The movie however, was a blockbuster hit and she won her first National Film Award for Best Actress, Filmfare Award for Best Actress and Stardust Award for Best Actress. 2012 gave her no films till date but made her to confess her love about Siddhart Roy Kapoor. In an interview, she announced that she is dating this CEO of UTV Motion Pictures.

Madhuri Dixit Biography


The girl with the best smile was born on 15th May 1967 in Mumbai to parents Shankar and Snehlata Dixit of a Marathi Brahmin family. She went to Divine Child High School and Mumbai University and studied microbiology. She is a trained Kathak dancer and admires this art to the core. She is still famous for being one of the best dancers Bollywood has ever had.

Madhuri Dixit Biography She made her acting debut in Rajshri Productions’ movie ‘Abodh’ in 1984 but the film was declared a flop. Then in 1988 she was offered the lead role in N. Chandra’s ‘Tezaab’ which changed her life for the best. She gained stardom and her first nomination for the Filmfare Best Actress Award. Her success with ‘Tezaab’ gave her a number of successful movies in 1989.

She starred in ‘Ram Lakhan’, asserted as a super hit film, ‘Prem Pratigya’ gave her the second nomination for Best Actress Award, ‘Tridevi’, year’s third highest grossing film and finally ‘Parinda’ which also got her critically acclaimed. Then in 1990, this trained dancer starred in ‘Dil’ which was the biggest box office hit of the year and won Madhuri her first Filmfare Best Actress Award.

From then on, it was celebration time for Dixit. She was regarded as one of the best actresses and more blockbusters came her way. In 1991, she did ‘Saajan’ with Salman Khan and Sanjay dutt which was the highest grossing movie of that year. In 1992, she earned her second Filmare Best Actress Award for ‘Beta’.

In 1993, she again gave a fabulous performance in ‘Khalnayak’ acquiring another nomination for the Filmfare. Her role as a revenge seeking wife in ‘Anjaam’ was appreciated inspite of the movie being an average. She next starred in ‘Hum Aapke Hai Koun’ which is one of the biggest hits in Indian cinema and also earned her another Filmfare Best Actress Award.

In 1995, she did ‘Raja’ with Sanjay Kapoor and had the pleasure of a ninth nomination for Filmfare Best Actress. Her next ‘Yaarana’ gave her the tenth nomination, although the film was declared an average. However after much acclamations and awards, the years 1996 and 1997 were a dark period in her career.

Her movies ‘Premkatha’, ‘Rajkumar’ and ‘Mohabbat’ fared poorly at the box office. However her next again ‘Dil To Pagal Hai’ was a commercial hit and won her the fourth filmfare Best Actress Award. On 17th October 1999, this Bollywood diva married Shriram Madhav Nene, a surgeon who practiced in Denver.

Her first post marriage release was critically acclaimed. Next she did ‘Lajja’ (2001) was failed in india but made a mark in the overseas market. In 2002, she played Chandramukhi in the super hit ‘Devdas’ which also won her the Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award. In 2003, a movie on her name ‘Main Madhuri Dixit Banna Chahti Hoon’ was released.

Later she shifted to Denver with her husband breaking the hearts of her million fans in India. The couple has two sons Arin and Raayan. In 2006, she returned for the movie ‘Aaja Nachle’ in which her performance was highly appreciated.

In Octover 2011, she again shifted to Mumbai with her family and is currently a part of the reality show ‘Jhalak Dikhla Jaa’. She has also played her role as a society uplifter. In February 2011, she spent an evening with 75 orphanage kids giving them infinite happiness. She is also the brand ambassador of Emerald for Elephants, a charity project. Her eyes and her still leave people enchanted and mesmerized.

Swami Vivekananda Biography


Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta into a traditional Bengali family. Originally named Narendra Nath Datta, his mother had a dream in which Lord Shiva said that he would be born as her son and accepting the child as God Shiva’s blessing, she named him Vireswara. He learnt rational thinking from his father and his mother taught him religious temperament. He was well versed with Indian classical music-both vocal and instrumental.

Swami Vivekananda Biography As a child he often questioned the basis of superstitions and refused to follow the discrimination based on caste or any other belief without rational explanation. After some years of home education, he joined the Metropolitan Institute of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar in 1871 but moved to Raipur with his family 1877. He returned to Calcutta after two years. In 1881, Vivekanand passes the fine arts exam and in 1884, he acquired a Bachelor of Arts degree.

He became the member of a Freemason’s lodge and of a breakaway faction from the Brahmo Samaj and thus shaped his initial beliefs. His first introduction to his guru, saint Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class in General Assembly Institution. Some of the students, including Narendra visited the saint to know the meaning of the word ‘trance’ from one of William Wordsworth poetry.

His meeting with the teacher in 1881 changed his life completely. During a course of five years of his training under Ramakrishna, he accepted him as his guru and surrendered himself as his disciple. After the death of this great guru, Vivekanand with the monastic disciples and financially supported by the householder disciples formed a fellowship at a half ruined house in Baranagar and this became the first building of Ramakrishna math.

In 1888, he left the monastery and became a wandering monk. He began his journey from Varanasi where he met Bhudev Mukhopadhyay who became a source of advice for the Swami. In 1890, he continued his journey to the west with fellow monk Swami Akhandananda. In 1891, he travelled alone to Delhi and visited the historical sites. After spending two and a half months here and learning about the sutras of Panini, he proceeded towards Rajasthan and Maharashtra.

Continuing his travels towards Western India, he studied about Islamic and Jain culture in Ahmadabad. Later he visited Bangalore and from there he ended his travel of South India. Assuming the name Vivekanand, suggested by the Maharaja of Khetri, Swami left for Chicago. On his way, he visited Japan in 1893. The progress made by Japan reminded him of his backward country and he urged his countrymen to come out of their narrow minds.

His journey to America took him through Canada and China and he reached Chicago in 1893. The Parliament of the Worlds Religion opened on 11th September 1893 and Swami in his first brief address represented India and Hinduism. He spent two whole years lecturing in various parts of eastern and central US.

Delivering private lectures to his disciples and founding the ‘Vedanta Society’ of Newyork was the happiest time of his life. He returned to India after spending a short time in Srilanka. In 1897, he founded the Ramakrishna Mission, an organ for social service whose ideals are based on Karma Yoga. As a wanderer, he ignored his health and continuous work and travel seriously deteriorated his health conditions.

He was suffering from asthma, diabetes and other ailments. He died on 4th July 1902 abandoning the materialistic world and depriving his disciples from his shade. But he continues to rule the heart of every Indian.

Priyanka Chopra Biography


The Femina Miss India World 2000, Priyanka Chopra, was born on 18th July 1982 in Bihar to physician parents Ashok Chopra and Madhu Akhauri. She did her initial schooling from ‘La Martiniere Girls’ School in Lucknow and then relocated to the U.S. and studied in Newton North High School and then in John F Kennedy High School. She returned to India and finished her school life at Army Public School in Bareilly. She did her higher studies from Jai Hind College in Mumbai.

Priyanka Chopra Biography Her mother played an important role in her introduction to the world of fashion when she sent pictures of her daughter to the Miss World pageant. It was only after she was selected for participation that her parents told her and encouraged her about this. She won the Femina Miss India World title and was sent to the Miss World pageant where she impressed the judges with her speech on humanity and charity and Mother Teresa’s influence in her life. She was crowned Miss World 2000 and also won ‘Miss World Continental Queen of Beauty- Asia and oceania’.

After the fashion stage conquered, she went on to capture Bollywood with her charm. However she made her debut in the Tamil film Thamizhan in 2002. Her Bollywood debut came in 2003in ‘The Hero: Love Story of a spy’. In the same year, she appeared in ‘Andaaz’ which was a success at the box office and in her career. She got the Filmfare Best Female Debut Award and was nominated in Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award.

In 2004, her films ‘Plan’ and ‘Asambhav’ turned out poorly at the box office but later that year David Dhawan’s ‘Mujse Shaadi Karogi’ crossed her way and became the third highest grossing film for that year. Her first negative role was offered to her in ‘Aitraaz’ and she won the ‘Filmfare Best Villain’ award for her performance. In 2005, four of he films ‘Blackmail’, ‘Karam’, ‘Yakeen’ and ‘Barsaat’ did not do well at the box office. Her other two films ‘Waqt: The race against time’ and ‘bluffmaster’ did moderately at the box office. This was an average year for Chopra.

In 2006, she starred in the highest grossing film of that year, ‘Krrish’. Her other films in 2006, 2007 and 2008 were unsuccessful and neither was her performance critically acclaimed except in ‘Drona’ in which she was noted for her physical performance. A dark period always bring something good with itself. Priyanka’s next movie ‘Fashion’ in 2008 was a critical success and won her the ‘National Film Award for Best Actress’ and the ‘Filmfare Award for Best Actress’. Her next release ‘Dostana’ was a financial success and the eighth grossing film of 2008.

2009 started with the movie ‘Kaminey’ which was critical and commercial hit. Her next critic acclamation came with the movie ‘7 khoon maaf’ in 2011. In 2012, she became the first Bollywood actor to be signed by Creative Artists Agency to handle her Hollywood acting career. On the small screen, she hosted the reality show ‘Khatron Ke Khiladi’ on colors. She is also set to release her first music album in 2012 which will be produced by Universal Music Group. Her humanitarian work is not hidden from the world. She is the UNICEF’s Goodwill Ambassador. She also walks the ramp for various designers and has lots of endorsements in her kitty. She is a package of beauty, style, brain and ambition.

Indira Gandhi Biography


Born on 19th November 1917 at the Anand Bhavan in Allahabad into the politically influential Nehru family to parents Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamla Nehru, Indira Gandhi did her schooling from the Modern School, Delhi. In 1930s, she attended the VisvaBharati University in Shantiniketan in Kolkata, West Bengal.

Indira Gandhi Biography Her mother’s death in 1936 shattered her and she failed the Oxford exam. She continued studying in England and spent a few months at the Badminton School before clearing the Oxford exam. During her stay in UK, she often met Feroze Gandhi from Allahabad who was studying at the London School of Economics and whom she later married. They married in Allahabad according to the Hindu rituals.

In 1950s, she assisted her father during his tenure as the first Prime minister of independent India. The special agricultural innovation programs launched in the 1960s somewhat eradicated the chronic food shortages which infected most parts of the country. This became possible because our country transformed into a food exporter rather than depending upon the food aid from the United States.

She became a member of the Rajya Sabha in 1964 after her father’s death and also joined Lal Bahadur Shashtri’s cabinet as minister of Information and broadcasting. After Shashtri’s sudden demise, the Congress Party President played an important role in making her the Prime Minister. In 1969 fourteen major banks were nationalized to promote banking facilities in the country and develop India economically.

In the 1971 elections, her program ‘Gribi Hatao’ was funded and developed by New Delhi and the Indian National Congress Party. She ruled India as the Prime Minister during the crucial victory of East Pakistan over Pakistan in the 1971 war and the creation of an independent Bangladesh. The High Court of Allahabad declared her election as void on grounds of electoral malpractice on 12th June 1975. She was found guilty of using government resources for campaigning.

But the court order did not minimize her popularity with her fans. Defeated in the 1977 elections, she came back to power in 1980. She invited the Pakistani President Zilfikar Ali Bhutto to Shimla for a week long summit and they eventually signed the Shimla Agreement which bound the two countries to resolve the Kashmir dispute by negotiations and peaceful means. She blew life into her father’s vision of a Nuclear Weapons Program.

She gave the authorization of developing nuclear weapons in 1967. In 1974, India successfully conducted the trial of its first nuclear weapon near the desert village of Pokhran. In July 1982, Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale led a campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution for greater rights to the states making a federal arrangement and in response to this under her guidance and leadership; the India army entered the Golden temple, the most sacred Sikh Gurudwara to remove armed insurgents present inside the temple. She was assassinated during this mission on 31st October 1984 for retaliation by her Sikh bodyguards. In her honor, the airport at New Delhi is named Indira Gandhi International Airport and the largest university in the world is also named after her.

Ratan Tata Biography


Grandson of the Tata group founder Jamshedji Tata, Ratan Naval Tata has always been a troubled child. Born on 28th December 1987, he was left alone by his parents who separated when he was seven and a half years old. He and his brother were brought up solely by his grandmother Lady Navajbai. He initially went to the Campion School and later at the Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai.

Ratan Tata Biography He did his B.S. in architecture with structural engineering from Cornell University in 1962 and the Advanced Management program from Harvard Business School in 1975. On his return to India in 1962 after declining a job at IBM, he was made to work on the shop floor at Tata Steel in Jamshedpur with other blue collar employees.

He was given the duty of shoveling limestone and handling the blast furnace. In the year 1971, he was appointed as the director of National radio and Electronics (NELCO) which was on the verge of collapsing with 40% losses and nearly 2% share of the consumer electronics market. However when he transformed the company, an emergency was declared in the country and Nelco’s position and profit began deteriorating again.

In 1977, he was assigned his next assignment which included turning around the sick Express Mills and he successfully completed his task. His efforts to run the mill successfully were drowned when he was refused an investmeny of rupees fifty lakhs to make the textile unit competitive. Finally after struggling, the unit closed down.

He was announced the successor to his grandfather in 1981 but this decision of the steel king was criticized because Ratan lacked the expertise to run the big chain of TATA industries. In 1991, he was appointed as the group chairman of the TATA group. He did his duty as the Chairman by interconnecting ‘the corporate commonwealth’ of different TATA affiliated companies.

He was also responsible for attaining Tetley, Jaguar land rover and Corus which has expanded the TATA business beyond the boundaries of India. Currently 65% of its revenue comes from global business. The development of indica and Nano was possible only because of his constant push.

In August 2007, this great businessman led TATA group’s acquisition of Corus. This achievement made the TATA group the fifth largest steel producer in the world. Currently he is one of the most successful men in the universe, serving as the Chairman of the TATA group, being a reputed board of director member of Alcoa, being a member of the International Advisory boards of Mitsubishi Corporation, the American International group, JP Morgan Chase, Rolls Royce, Temasek holdings and the Monetry holdings of Singapore.

With revenues of more than $83 billion, he did not neglect his duty towards the society. He is associated with various organizations in India and overseas and presides over two of the largest private sector promoted philanthropic trusts in India. He was honored with the Padma Bhushan in 2000, Padma Vibhushan in 2008 and the Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012. After his retirement in December 2012, Cyrus Mistry, the son of Pallonji Mistry and managing director of Shapoorji Pallonji group will succeed him.

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